Towards a comprehensive and potentially cross-cultural model of why people protest: A quantitative research synthesis of four motivations for collective action

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractAcademic


In this meta-analysis, we test a potentially cross-cultural model of collective action by synthesizing four motivations (injustice, identity, efficacy, and morality) for collective action (1235 effects from 403 samples; total N = 123,707). We replicate medium-sized positive effects of injustice, identity, and efficacy on collective action, while newly showing a medium-sized unique positive effect of morality on collective action. We also replicate a pattern of positive correlations between injustice, identity and efficacy, while newly showing positive correlations between morality and the other predictors. Third, we replicate the findings that the best predictors of collective action are emotional injustice and politicized identification, while newly showing that moral conviction is an equally strong predictor. Fourth, we newly find that the four motivations extend to advantaged group members engaging in solidarity with the disadvantaged; and newly identify structural (e.g., cultural) constraints. We discuss how our new “dual chamber” model and findings confirm previous insights and break new ground by integrating four socio-psychological perspectives on why people protest.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 12-Feb-2021

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