Transplantation of High-risk Donor Livers After Ex Situ Resuscitation and Assessment Using Combined Hypo- and Normothermic Machine Perfusion A Prospective Clinical Trial: A Prospective Clinical Trial

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate sequential hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) as a tool to resuscitate and assess viability of initially declined donor livers to enable safe transplantation. Summary

Background Data: Machine perfusion is increasingly used to resuscitate and test the function of donor livers. Although (dual) hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion ([D]HOPE) resuscitates livers after cold storage, NMP enables assessment of hepatobiliary function.

Methods: In a prospective clinical trial, nationwide declined livers were subjected to ex situ NMP (viability assessment phase), preceded by 1-hour DHOPE (resuscitation phase) and 1 hour of controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR), using a perfusion fluid containing an hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier. During the first 2.5 hours of NMP, hepatobiliary viability was assessed, using predefined criteria: perfusate lactate 10mL, and bile pH >7.45. Livers meeting all criteria were accepted for transplantation. Primary endpoint was 3-month graft survival.

Results: Sixteen livers underwent DHOPE-COR-NMP. All livers were from donors after circulatory death, with median age of 63 (range 42-82) years and median Eurotransplant donor risk index of 2.82. During NMP, all livers cleared lactate and produced sufficient bile volume, but in 5 livers bile pH remained

Conclusions: Sequential DHOPE-COR-NMP enabled resuscitation and safe selection of initially declined high-risk donor livers, thereby increasing the number of transplantable livers by 20%.

Trial registration:; NTR5972.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)906-914
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Issue number5
Early online date12-Aug-2019
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2019


  • declined livers
  • extended-criteria donor livers
  • hypothermic machine perfusion
  • liver transplantation
  • normothermic machine perfusion
  • BILE

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