Background The prognostic impact of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognised, but little is known about tubular damage in these patients.
Objective To investigate the prevalence of tubular damage, and its association with GFR, and prognosis in patients with CHF.
Methods and results In 90 patients with CHF, GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured ([(125)I] iothalamate and [(131)I] hippuran clearances). The tubular markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as well as urinary albumin excretion were determined in 24 h urine collections. Mean GFR was 78 +/- 26 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Urinary NGAL (175 (70-346) mu g/g creatinine (gCr)), NAG (12 (6-17) U/gCr) and KIM-1 (277 (188-537) ng/gCr) levels were increased compared with 20 healthy controls (all p
Conclusion Tubular damage, as indicated by increased urinary concentrations of NGAL, NAG and KIM-1 is common in patients with CHF and mildly reduced GFR. Both urinary KIM-1 and NAG showed prognostic information additional to GFR. These findings suggest an important role for tubular damage and tubular markers in cardiorenal interaction in heart failure.
- GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN
- KIDNEY INJURY MOLECULE-1
- TUBULOINTERSTITIAL INJURY
- IGA NEPHROPATHY