Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) halide perovskites are the new kids on the block for high-performance perovskite photovoltaics with excellent ambient stability. The layered nature of these perovskites offers an exciting possibility of harnessing their ferroelectric property for photovoltaics. Adjacent polar domains in a ferroelectric material allow the spatial separation of electrons and holes. Presently, the structure-function properties governing the ferroelectric behavior of RP perovskites are an open question. Herein, we realize tunable ferroelectricity in 2-phenylethylammonium (PEA) and methylammonium (MA) RP perovskite (PEA)(2)(MA)((n) over bar -1)Pb(n) over barI3 (n) over bar +1. Second harmonic generation (SHG) confirms the noncentrosymmetric nature of these polycrystalline thin films, whereas piezoresponse force microscopy and polarization-electric field measurements validate the microscopic and macroscopic ferroelectric properties. Temperature-dependent SHG and dielectric constant measurements uncover a phase transition temperature at around 170 degrees C in these films. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental results and identified the correlated reorientation of MA molecules and ion translations as the source of ferroelectricity. Current-voltage characteristics in the dark reveal the persistence of hysteresis in these devices, which has profound implications for light-harvesting and light-emitting applications. Importantly, our findings disclose a viable approach for engineering the ferroelectric properties of RP perovskites that may unlock new functionalities for perovskite optoelectronics.
- Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites
- second harmonic generation
- polarization-electric field
- and molecular simulation
- ORGANOMETALLIC HALIDE
- CARRIER DYNAMICS
Zhang, Q. (Contributor), Solanki, A. (Contributor), Parida, K. (Contributor), Giovanni, D. (Contributor), Li, M. (Contributor), Jansen, T. (Contributor), Pchenitchnikov, M. (Contributor) & Sum, T. C. (Contributor), University of Groningen, 11-Jun-2019