Two-Step 3D-Guided Supramalleolar Osteotomy to Treat Varus Ankle osteoarthritis

Tom van Raaij*, Hylke van der Wel, Mark Beldman, Astrid de Vries, Joep Kraeima

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Success of valgus-type supramalleolar osteotomy (SMOT) depends on adequate correction of malalignment, which can be hard to achieve with current 2-dimensional (2D) planning and operative techniques. A personalized digital 3-dimensional (3D) workflow to virtually plan and perform a 2-step 3D-guided medial opening (MO) SMOT has the potential to improve precision of correction.

Methods: Computed tomography (CT)-based Proplan medical 3D models were made to virtually plan the desired MO SMOT, and exported to 3-Matic medical to develop patient-specific 2-step cutting and wedge guides. Workflow accuracy was tested in this limited clinical pilot study (3 patients) by comparing the virtual planned position of the osteotomized distal tibial fragment with the I -year post-MO SMOT configuration. Two millimeters or less translation deviation in every plane was defined as accurate.

Results: Primary outcome analysis of the osteotomized distal tibial fragment deviation showed a median translation in all planes of 0.7 (range 0-8.2) mm (interquartile range 1.55) with an excellent interrater reliability of the measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.998). There was a strong reduction in ankle pain as reflected by an increase of the AOFAS-AH score and decrease of NRS pain score with an unrestricted hindfoot motion 1 year after surgery.

Conclusion: 3D virtually planned bone cutting and wedge guides is a promising approach associated with minimal postoperative deviation from the desired correction in medial opening supramalleolar osteotomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)937-941
Number of pages5
JournalFoot & Ankle International
Issue number7
Early online date5-Apr-2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2022


  • arthritis
  • osteotomy
  • supramalleolar
  • 3D guides
  • PSI

Cite this