Understanding the Improvement in Full Childhood Vaccination Coverage in Ethiopia Using Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition Analysis

Abrham Wondimu*, Qi Cao, Derek Asuman, Josue Almansa, Maarten J. Postma, Marinus van Hulst

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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In Ethiopia, full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months has improved in recent decades. This study aimed to investigate drivers of the improvement in the vaccination coverage. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique was applied to identify the drivers using data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2000 and 2016. The vaccination coverage rose from 14.3% in 2000 to 38.5% in 2016. The decomposition analysis showed that most of the rise in vaccination coverage (73.7%) resulted from the change in the effect of explanatory variables over time and other unmeasured characteristics. Muslim religion had a counteracting effect on the observed increase in vaccination coverage. The remaining 26.3% of the increase was attributed to the change in the composition of the explanatory variables between 2000 and 2016, with maternal educational level and maternal health care utilization as significant contributors. The findings highlight the need for further improvements in maternal health care utilization and educational status to maintain the momentum towards universal coverage of childhood vaccination. Targeted intervention among Muslim-dominated communities is also needed to improve the current situation. Besides which, future studies need to be conducted to identify additional potential modifiable factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number505
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2020


  • childhood vaccination
  • coverage
  • improvement
  • Ethiopia
  • Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition

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