Unsupervised detection of botnet activities using frequent pattern tree mining

Siqiang Hao, Di Liu, Simone Baldi, Wenwu Yu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


A botnet is a network of remotely-controlled infected computers that can send spam, spread viruses, or stage denial-of-serviceattacks, without the consent of the computer owners. Since the beginning of the 21st century, botnet activities have steadilyincreased, becoming one of the major concerns for Internet security. In fact, botnet activities are becoming more and moredifficult to be detected, because they make use of Peer-to-Peer protocols (eMule, Torrent, Frostwire, Vuze, Skype and manyothers). To improve the detectability of botnet activities, this paper introduces the idea of association analysis in the field ofdata mining, and proposes a system to detect botnets based on the FP-growth (Frequent Pattern Tree) frequent item miningalgorithm. The detection system is composed of three parts: packet collection processing, rule mining, and statistical analysisof rules. Its characteristic feature is the rule-based classification of different botnet behaviors in a fast and unsupervisedfashion. The effectiveness of the approach is validated in a scenario with 11 Peer-to-Peer host PCs, 42063 Non-Peer-to-Peerhost PCs, and 17 host PCs with three different botnet activities (Storm, Waledac and Zeus). The recognition accuracy of theproposed architecture is shown to be above 94%. The proposed method is shown to improve the results reported in literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761–769
Number of pages9
JournalComplex and Intelligent Systems
Early online date25-Feb-2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr-2022

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