Urinary Carnosinase-1 Excretion is Associated with Urinary Carnosine Depletion and Risk of Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results of the TransplantLines Cohort Study

Maria Rodriguez Niño*, Diego Pastene, Adrian Post, Yusof Said, António Gomes Neto, Lyanne Kieneker, Rebecca Fokkema, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerald Rimbach, Peter Schnuelle, Benito Yard, Stephan Bakker

*Corresponding author for this work

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Carnosine affords protection against oxidative and carbonyl stress, yet high concentrations of the carnosinase-1 enzyme may limit this. We recently reported that high urinary carnosinase-1 is associated with kidney function decline and albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated whether urinary carnosinase-1 is associated with a high risk for development of late graft failure in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Carnosine and carnosinase-1 were measured in 24 h urine in a longitudinal cohort of 703 stable KTRs and 257 healthy controls. Cox regression was used to analyze the prospective data. Urinary carnosine excretions were significantly decreased in KTRs (26.5 [IQR 21.4–33.3] µmol/24 h versus 34.8 [IQR 25.6–46.8] µmol/24 h; p < 0.001). In KTRs, high urinary carnosinase-1 concentrations were associated with increased risk of undetectable urinary carnosine (OR 1.24, 95%CI [1.06–1.45]; p = 0.007). During median follow-up for 5.3 [4.5–6.0] years, 84 (12%) KTRs developed graft failure. In Cox regression analyses, high urinary carnosinase-1 excretions were associated with increased risk of graft failure (HR 1.73, 95%CI [1.44–2.08]; p < 0.001) independent of potential confounders. Since urinary carnosine is depleted and urinary carnosinase-1 imparts a higher risk for graft failure in KTRs, future studies determining the potential of carnosine supplementation in these patients are warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1102
Number of pages17
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 9-Jul-2021


  • carnosine
  • carnosinase-1
  • kidney transplantation
  • oxidative Stress
  • graft failure

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