The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family of chaperones are well-known, highly important components of the cellular systems which regulate protein homeostasis. Essential in eukaryotes, Hsp90s is also found in prokaryotes, including archaea. Hsp90 is a dimeric protein, with each monomer consisting of three separate structural domains, and undergoes large conformational changes as part of its functional cycle. This cycle is driven by interactions with nucleotides, cochaperone proteins, client proteins and allosteric effects enacted by these and by posttranslational modifications. All of these influence the rate and degree of the opening and closing of the dimer as well as the relative domain orientations and its overall rigidity. Optical tweezers, which can access many of these functionally important conformational changes, therefore provide a unique tool for the study of this large and complex molecular chaperone. Here, we provide protocols for the design and implementation of different Hsp90 constructs and optical tweezers experiments for addressing the many open questions about the function of this important molecular chaperone.