VISTA regulates microglia homeostasis and myelin phagocytosis, and is associated with MS lesion pathology

Malte Borggrewe, Susanne M. Kooistra, Evelyn M. Wesseling, Fenja L. Gierschek, Maaike L. Brummer, Elizabeth C. Nowak, Tiago Medeiros-furquim, Tegan A. Otto, Sam W. Lee, Randolph J. Noelle, Bart J. L. Eggen, Jon D. Laman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

V-type immunoglobulin domain-containing suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) that is involved in T-cell quiescence, inhibition of T-cell activation, and in myeloid cells regulates cytokine production, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and tolerance induction. In the central nervous system (CNS), VISTA is expressed by microglia, the resident macrophage of the parenchyma, and expression is decreased during neuroinflammation; however, the function of VISTA in microglia is unknown. Here, we extensively analyzed VISTA expression in different MS lesion stages and characterized the function of VISTA in the CNS by deleting <jats:italic>VISTA</jats:italic> in microglia. VISTA is differentially expressed in distinct MS lesion stages. In mice, <jats:italic>VISTA</jats:italic> deletion in Cx3Cr1-expressing cells induced a more amoeboid microglia morphology, indicating an immune-activated phenotype. Expression of genes associated with cell cycle and immune-activation was increased in VISTA KO microglia. In response to LPS and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), VISTA KO and WT microglia shared similar transcriptional profiles and <jats:italic>VISTA</jats:italic> deletion did not affect EAE disease progression or microglia responses. VISTA KO in microglia in vitro decreased the uptake of myelin. This study demonstrates that VISTA is involved in microglia function, which likely affects healthy CNS homeostasis and neuroinflammation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number91
Pages (from-to)91-109
Number of pages18
JournalActa neuropathologica communications
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18-May-2021

Keywords

  • Immunotherapy
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Glial cells
  • Demyelination
  • PD-1H
  • Checkpoint inhibition
  • IMMUNE-CHECKPOINT BLOCKADE
  • MOUSE
  • MACROPHAGES
  • PHENOTYPE
  • DISEASE

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