Vitamin D concentration and psychotic disorder: associations with disease status, clinical variables and urbanicity

GROUP, C. van der Leeuw*, L. D. de Witte, A. Stellinga, C. van der Ley, R. Bruggeman, R. S. Kahn, J. van Os, M. Marcelis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background The association between schizophrenia and decreased vitamin D levels is well documented. Low maternal and postnatal vitamin D levels suggest a possible etiological mechanism. Alternatively, vitamin D deficiency in patients with schizophrenia is presumably (also) the result of disease-related factors or demographic risk factors such as urbanicity. Methods In a study population of 347 patients with psychotic disorder and 282 controls, group differences in vitamin D concentration were examined. Within the patient group, associations between vitamin D, symptom levels and clinical variables were analyzed. Group x urbanicity interactions in the model of vitamin D concentration were examined. Both current urbanicity and urbanicity at birth were assessed. Results Vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in patients (B= -8.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.68 to -2.42;p= 0.005). In patients, higher vitamin D concentration was associated with lower positive (B= -0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.00;p= 0.049) and negative symptom levels (B= -0.03; 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01;p= 0.008). Group differences were moderated by urbanicity at birth (chi(2)= 6.76 andp= 0.001), but not by current urbanicity (chi(2)= 1.50 andp= 0.224). Urbanicity at birth was negatively associated with vitamin D concentration in patients (B= -5.11; 95% CI -9.41 to -0.81;p= 0.020), but not in controls (B= 0.72; 95% CI -4.02 to 5.46;p= 0.765). Conclusions Lower vitamin D levels in patients with psychotic disorder may in part reflect the effect of psychosis risk mediated by early environmental adversity. The data also suggest that lower vitamin D and psychopathology may be related through direct or indirect mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1680-1686
Number of pages7
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume50
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2020

Keywords

  • Psychotic disorder
  • schizophrenia
  • urbanicity
  • vitamin D
  • D DEFICIENCY
  • D INSUFFICIENCY
  • INCREASED RISK
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • IMMIGRANTS
  • METAANALYSIS
  • PREVALENCE
  • SYMPTOMS
  • MORTALITY
  • MIGRATION

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