Water and ammonia abundances in S140 with the Odin satellite

C. M. Persson*, M. Olberg, A. Hjalmarson, M. Spaans, J. H. Black, U. Frisk, T. Liljestrom, A. O. H. Olofsson, D. R. Poelman, Aa. Sandqvist

*Corresponding author for this work

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Aims. We investigate the effect of the physical environment on water and ammonia abundances across the S140 photodissociation region (PDR) with an embedded outflow.

Methods. We used the Odin satellite to obtain strip maps of the ground-state rotational transitions of ortho-water and ortho-ammonia, as well as CO(5-4) and (13)CO(5-4) across the PDR, and H(2)(18)O in the central position. A physi-chemical inhomogeneous PDR model was used to compute the temperature and abundance distributions for water, ammonia, and CO. A multi-zone escape probability method then calculated the level populations and intensity distributions. These results are compared to a homogeneous model computed with an enhanced version of the RADEX code.

Results. H(2)O, NH(3), and (13)CO show emission from an extended PDR with a narrow line width of similar to 3 kms(-1). Like CO, the water line profile is dominated by outflow emission, but mainly in the red wing. Even though CO shows strong self-absorption, no signs of self-absorption are seen in the water line. The H(2)(18)O molecule is not detected. The PDR model suggests that the water emission arises mainly from the surfaces of optically thick, high-density clumps with n(H(2)) greater than or similar to 10(6) cm(-3) and a clump water abundance, with respect to H(2), of 5 x 10(-8). The mean water abundance in the PDR is 5 x 10(-9) and between similar to 4 x 10(-8)-4 x 10(-7) in the outflow derived from a simple two-level approximation. The RADEX model points to a somewhat higher average PDR water abundance of 1 x 10(-8). At low temperatures deep in the cloud, the water emission is weaker, likely due to adsorption onto dust grains, while ammonia is still abundant. Ammonia is also observed in the extended clumpy PDR, likely from the same high density and warm clumps as water. The average ammonia abundance is about the same as for water: 4 x 10(-9) and 8 x 10(-9) given by the PDR model and RADEX, respectively. The differences between the models most likely arise from uncertainties in density, beam-filling, and volume-filling of clumps. The similarity of water and ammonia PDR emission is also seen in the almost identical line profiles observed close to the bright rim. Around the central position, ammonia also shows some outflow emission, although weaker than water in the red wing. Predictions of the H(2)O 1(1,0)- 1(0,1) and 1(1,1) - 0(0,0) antenna temperatures across the PDR are estimated with our PDR model for the forthcoming observations with the Herschel Space Observatory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-646
Number of pages13
JournalAstronomy & astrophysics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2009


  • ISM: abundances
  • ISM: individual objects: S140
  • ISM: molecules
  • submillimeter
  • line: profiles
  • line: formation
  • BANDS 486-492

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