Wish you were here: The Dutch, German, and English Yearning in Situations of Loss Short Form

Maarten C. Eisma*, Eva-Maria Stelzer, Lonneke I. M. Lenferink, Lindsey M. Knowles, Sarah K. Gastmeier, Maria Angelopoulou, Bettina K. Doering, Mary-Frances O'Connor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Objective(s) Yearning, a hallmark of grief disorders, relates to rumination and potentially to cognitive avoidance. We developed an 8-item short form of the only existing validated yearning measure, the Yearning in Situations of Loss Scale (YSL), to improve its validity and administration ease.

Method Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among bereaved Dutch (N = 313) and German (N = 235) community samples and an American treatment-seeking sample (N = 95). All samples completed the YSL, and community samples additionally measures of rumination, loss-related avoidance, complicated grief (CG), and depression.

Results A one-factor model provided a good fit to the YSL Short Form (YSL-SF) in the community samples. A two-factor structure (cognitive and emotional yearning)best fitted the YSL-SF in the treatment-seeking sample. YSL-SF scores correlated positively with rumination, loss-related avoidance, and with CG symptoms whilst controlling for rumination and loss-related avoidance.

Conclusion The YSL-SF appears an easy-to-administer and valid measure of yearning after bereavement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1995-2014
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of clinical psychology
Volume76
Issue number10
Early online date1-Jun-2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2020

Keywords

  • emotion
  • longing
  • persistent complex bereavement disorder
  • prolonged grief disorder
  • questionnaire
  • reliability
  • scale
  • validity
  • COMPLICATED GRIEF
  • PROLONGED GRIEF
  • POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS
  • DEPRESSIVE AVOIDANCE
  • FIT INDEXES
  • RUMINATION
  • BEREAVEMENT
  • INVENTORY
  • SYMPTOMS
  • VALIDITY

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