We used two XMM-Newton and six Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer observations to investigate the fractional rms amplitude of the millihertz quasiperiodic oscillations (mHz QPOs) in the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. We studied, for the first time, the fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs versus energy in 4U 1636-53 down to 0.2 keV. We find that, as the energy increases from ∼0.2 to ∼3 keV, the rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs increases, different from the decreasing trend that has been previously observed above 3 keV. This finding has not yet been predicted by any current theoretical model; however, it provides an important observational feature to speculate whether a newly discovered mHz oscillation originates from the marginally stable nuclear burning process on the neutron-star surface.
- Low-mass x-ray binary stars
- Neutron stars
- Astrophysical explosive burning