Zero-one laws for provability logic: Axiomatizing validity in almost all models and almost all frames

Rineke Verbrugge*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Working paperAcademic

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It has been shown in the late 1960s that each formula of first-order logic without constants and function symbols obeys a zero-one law: As the number of elements of finite models increases, every formula holds either in almost all or in almost no models of that size. Therefore, many properties of models, such as having an even number of elements, cannot be expressed in the language of first-order logic. Halpern and Kapron proved zero-one laws for classes of models corresponding to the modal logics K, T, S4, and S5. In this paper, we prove zero-one laws for provability logic with respect to both model and frame validity. Moreover, we axiomatize validity in almost all relevant finite models and in almost all relevant finite frames, leading to two different axiom systems. In the proofs, we use a combinatorial result by Kleitman and Rothschild about the structure of almost all finite partial orders. On the way, we also show that a previous result by Halpern and Kapron about the axiomatization of almost sure frame validity for S4 is not correct. Finally, we consider the complexity of deciding whether a given formula is almost surely valid in the relevant finite models and frames.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 11-Feb-2021


  • cs.LO

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