Background The relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease remains controversial, owing in part to inaccurate assessment of sodium intake. Assessing 24-hour urinary excretion over a period of multiple days is considered to be an accurate method. Methods We included individual-participant data from six prospective cohorts of generally healthy adults; sodium and potassium excretion was assessed with the use of at least two 24-hour urine samples per participant. The primary outcome was a cardiovascular event (coronary revascularization or fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke). We analyzed each cohort using consistent methods and combined the results using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results Among 10,709 participants, who had a mean (+/- SD) age of 51.5 +/- 12.6 years and of whom 54.2% were women, 571 cardiovascular events were ascertained during a median study follow-up of 8.8 years (incidence rate, 5.9 per 1000 person-years). The median 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 3270 mg (10th to 90th percentile, 2099 to 4899). Higher sodium excretion, lower potassium excretion, and a higher sodium-to-potassium ratio were all associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in analyses that were controlled for confounding factors (P
Urinary Sodium and Potassium and Cardiovascular Risk The relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease is controversial. This study used individual-participant data from six prospective cohorts of healthy adults. Higher sodium and lower potassium intakes, estimated from multiple 24-hour urine samples, were associated in a dose-dependent manner with a higher cardiovascular risk.