In Polish literary-historical criticism, the concept of Gnosticism has been used most frequently as a hermeneutical category that makes it possible to understand better the oeuvre of authors from Central and Eastern Europe. Polish scholars have successfully identified (neo)gnostic ideas present in the works of Jerzy Hulewicz, Tadeusz Miciński, and Franz Kafka. By referring to the works of Hans Jonas, Kurt Rudolph, and Jerzy Prokopiuk, many of them, unfortunately, have reproduced stereotypes on Gnosticism. In light of more recent studies on Gnosticism, the conclusions of their inquiries have become problematic. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the most common errors present in the examination of Polish literary scholars from the perspective of Gnostic studies, as well as the inaccuracies in their methodology that stem from outdated scholarly materials.