A critical view on lactose-based drug formulation and device studies for dry powder inhalation: Which are relevant and what interactions to expect?

A. H. de Boer*, H. K. Chan, R. Price

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutputpeer review

146 Citaten (Scopus)


Many years of research have not led to a profound knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the formulation and dispersion of carrier based mixtures for inhalation. Although it is well understood that the mixing is a key process in DPI carrier based formulation, there remains a limited understanding of how blending processes affect in-process material properties and the resulting distribution of the drug in the final dosage form. A great number of variables are considered relevant to the interfacial forces in adhesive mixtures, but their effects have mostly been investigated individually, without taking account of the influence they may have on each other. Interactions may be expected and without proper choices made and definitions given for all the variables involved, conclusions from studies on adhesive mixtures are of less relevance. By varying any of the variables that are not subject of the study, an opposite effect may be obtained. Currently, there is a strong focus on exploring techniques for the characterisation of drug and carrier surface properties that are believed to have an influence on the interparticulate forces in adhesive mixtures. For a number of surface properties it may be questioned whether they are really the key parameters to investigate however. Their orders of magnitude are subordinate to the effects they are supposed to have on the drug-to-carrier forces. Therefore, they seem rather indicators of other variability and their influence may be dominated by other effects. Finally, the relevance of inhaler design is often ignored. By using powerful inhalers, the effect of many variables of current concern may become less relevant. Carrier properties that are considered disadvantageous at present may even become desirable when a more appropriate type of dispersion force is applied. This can be shown for the effect of carrier surface rugosity when inertial separation forces are applied instead of the more widely applied lift and drag forces. Therefore, inhaler design should be taken into consideration when evaluating studies on adhesive mixtures. It should also become an integral part of powder formulation for inhalation. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)257-274
Aantal pagina's18
TijdschriftAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Nummer van het tijdschrift3
StatusPublished - 15-mrt.-2012


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