A Follow-Up Study of Maternal Expressed Emotion Toward Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Relation With Severity and Persistence of ADHD and Comorbidity

Jennifer Richards, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Nanda N. J. Rommelse, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Catharina A. Hartman, Jan K. Buitelaar

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

25 Citaten (Scopus)


Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. Method: In this 6-year follow-up study, 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean, 11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean, 17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. Results: EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)311-319
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Nummer van het tijdschrift3
StatusPublished - mrt-2014

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