Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead to a decrease in lung cancer mortality. The NELSON lung nodule management is based on nodule volumetry and volume doubling time assessment. Evaluation of CT examinations in lung cancer screening can also include assessment of coronary calcification, emphysema and airway wall thickness, biomarkers for major diseases that share risk factors with lung cancer. In this review, a practical approach to the radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations is described.