Background: According to international guidelines, prophylactic antibiotics in elective surgery should be given as a single dose 30 to 60 minutes before the operation is conducted. Postoperative administration of antibiotics should be discontinued 24 hours after surgery to minimize bacterial resistance and to keep control over hospitalization costs. There is a lack of data on the actual antibiotic use around surgical procedures in Indonesia. Objective: This retrospective surveillance study aimed to obtain defined daily doses (DDD) and DDDs per 100 bed days (DDD-100BD) for prophylactically used antibiotics in two private hospitals in Surabaya, East Java. These hospitals are considered to be representative for the current situation in Indonesia. Method: Data from a total of 693 patients over a nearly 1-year period (2016) were collected and evaluated. Results: The overall DDD per patient was 1.5 for hospital A and 1.7 for hospital B. The overall DDD-100BD was 30 for hospital B. Of the 24 antibiotics given prophylactically, ceftriaxone was the most commonly used in both hospitals. Conclusion: There was a clear discrepancy between daily practice in both hospitals and the recommendations in the guidelines. This study shows that better adherence to antibiotic stewardship is needed in Indonesia. Substantial improvements need to be made toward guided precision therapy regarding quantity (dose and frequency), route of administration (prolonged intravenous), and choice of the type of antibiotic.