Mongolia’s unlikely abolishment of the death penalty in 2015 raises a number of profound questions, issues and developments. Until 2015 capital punishment had been legally shrouded by state secrecy. Public opinion in Mongolia overwhelmingly supported the death penalty, as it seems to be the case also today, whereas the EU and other foreign relations were expressing support for a moratorium and subsequent abolishment. Yet, despite the moratorium and abolishment, the Mongolian constitution continues to provide for the death penalty. How did the moratorium and abolishment come about, and what role had the EU played towards this development?