Background. Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important predictor of long-term all-cause mortality after coronary artery bypass (CABG). However, the effect of AKI on long-term mortality after cardiac valve operations is hitherto undocumented.
Methods. Perioperative renal injury and long-term allcause mortality after valve operations were studied in a prospective cohort of patients undergoing solitary valve operations (n = 2,806) or valve operations combined with CABG (n = 1,260) with up to 18 years of follow-up. Postoperative serum creatinine increase was classified according to AKI staging 0 to 3. Patients undergoing solitary CABG (n = 4,938) with cardiopulmonary bypass served as reference.
Results. In both valve and valve+CABG operations, postoperative renal injury of AKI stage 1 or higher was progressively associated with an increase in long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.27, p <0.05 for valve; HR, 1.65, p <0.05 for valve+CABG; HR, 1.56, p <0.05 for CABG). Notably, the mortality risk increased already substantially at serum creatinine increases of 10% to 25%-that is, far below the threshold for AKI stage 1 after valve operations (HR, 1.39, p <0.05), but not after valve operations combined with CABG or CABG only.
Conclusions. An increase in serum creatinine by more than 10% during the first week after valve operation is associated with an increased risk for long-term mortality after cardiac valve operation. Thus, AKI classification clearly underestimates long-term mortality risk in patients undergoing valve operations. (C) 2018 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons