Both hosts and parasitoids evolved a diverse array of traits and strategies for their antagonistic interactions, affecting their chances of encounter, attack and survival after parasitoid attack. This review summarizes the recent progress that has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of these adaptations and counter-adaptations in various Drosophila host-parasitoid interactions. For the hosts, it focuses on the neurobiological and genetic control of strategies in Drosophila adults and larvae of avoidance or escape behaviours upon sensing the parasitoids, and the immunological defences involving diverse classes of haemocytes. For the parasitoids, it highlights their behavioural strategies in host finding, as well as the rich variety of venom components that evolved and were partially acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Recent studies revealed the mechanisms by which these venom components manipulate their parasitized hosts in exhibiting escape behaviour to avoid superparasitism, and their counter-strategies to evade or obstruct the hosts' immunological defences.