ADHD symptoms across adolescence: the role of the family and school climate and the DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR genotype

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We examined bidirectional relations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and family and school climate, and the possible role of DRD4 and/or 5-HTTLPR genotypes herein. Three-wave longitudinal data of 1860 adolescents (mean ages 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the general population and clinic-referred cohort of TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Using a multigroup Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model, we tested between-person (i.e., stable trait levels) and within-person (i.e., causal processes) associations across ADHD symptoms, family and school climate, and the extent to which these depended on genotype. Findings indicated no influence of genotype. Results did show significant between-person differences (ADHD symptoms with family climate r = .38; and school climate r = .23, p values <.001), indicating that higher stable levels of ADHD symptoms were associated with a less favorable family and school climate. Regarding within-person causal processes, ADHD symptoms predicted a less favorable family climate in early adolescence (beta = .16, p <.01), while ADHD symptoms predicted a more favorable family climate in the later phase of adolescence (beta = - .11, p <.01), a finding which we explain by normative developmental changes during adolescence. Overall, this study showed that negative associations between ADHD symptoms and both family and school climate are largely explained by stable between-person differences. We recommend applying the Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Path Model to developmental data to tease stable associations and change processes apart.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Vroegere onlinedatum18-okt.-2019
StatusPublished - 18-okt.-2019

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