The vitamin D-deficient model, established in the C57BL/6 mouse after 8 weeks of feeding vitamin D-deficient diets in the absence or presence of added calcium, was found associated with elevated levels of plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and plasma and liver cholesterol, and a reduction in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol metabolism) and renal Oat3 mRNA/protein expression levels. However, there was no change in plasma calcium and phosphate levels. Appraisal of the liver revealed an up-regulation of mRNA expressions of the small heterodimer partner (Shp) and attenuation of Cyp7a1, which contributed to hypercholesterolemia in vitamin D-deficiency. When vitamin D-sufficient or D-deficient mice were further rendered hypercholesterolemic with 3 weeks of feeding the respective, high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diets, treatment with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], active vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand, or vitamin D (cholecalciferol) to HF/HC vitamin D-deficient mice lowered the cholesterol back to baseline levels. Cholecalciferol treatment partially restored renal Oat3 mRNA/protein expression back to that of vitamin D-sufficient mice. When the protein expression of protein kinase C (PKC), a known, negative regulator of Oat3, was examined in murine kidney, no difference in PKC expression was observed for any of the diets with/without 1,25(OH)2D3/cholecalciferol treatment, inferring that VDR regulation of renal Oat3 did not involve PKC in mice. As expected, plasma calcium levels were not elevated by cholecalciferol treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice, while 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment led to hypercalcemia. In conclusion, vitamin D-deficiency resulted in down-regulation of liver Cyp7a1 and renal Oat3, conditions that are alleviated upon replenishment of cholecalciferol.