During pregnancy the maternal immune system has to coordinate uterine spiral-artery remodelling, trophoblast invasion, and acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus simultaneously. As dysregulation of the immune system is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, we analysed first-trimester deciduas of pregnancies for immune parameters in later complicated pregnancies. Higher IL6 and macrophage mRNA expression, and lower ratios of regulatory macrophages were found in first-trimester deciduas of pregnancies later complicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Lower Gata3 (Th2) mRNA expression was found in deciduas of pregnancies with later foetal growth restriction. Our results suggest that adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with immunological disturbances in first-trimester deciduas. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.