An acute rise of plasma Na+ concentration associates with syndecan-1 shedding during hemodialysis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 319: F171-F177, 2020. First published June 15, 2020; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00005.2020.-Endothelial dysfunction (ED) contributes to the high incidence of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Syndecan-1 in the endothelial glycocalyx can be shed into the circulation, serving as a biomarker for ED. As Na+ is a trigger for glycocalyx shedding, we now tested whether hemodialysis, with higher dialysate Na+ concentrations, is associated with more syndecan-1 shedding compared with standard hemodialysis (SHD). In this crossover study in 29 patients, plasma syndecan-1 was repeatedly measured during SHD and during Hemocontrol hemodialysis (HHD), which is characterized by initially higher dialysate and plasma Na+ levels. Courses of syndecan-1 were compared with linear mixed models. Syndecan-1 shedding was assessed by area under the curve analysis. Plasma Na+ increased early after the start of SHD and HHD, with higher values during HHD (30 min: 142.3 vs. 139.9 mM, P < 0.001). Syndecan-1 increased significantly during both conditions, but the percent change was higher (42.9% vs. 19.5%) and occurred earlier (120 vs. 180 min) during HHD. Syndecan-1 levels were significantly higher at 120 min during HHD compared with SHD (P < 0.05). Overall, syndecan-1 shedding was higher during HHD compared with SHD (means: 40.4 vs. 19.0 arbitrary units, P = 0.06). Lower predialysis plasma Na+ and osmolality were associated with greater intradialytic increases in syndecan-1 levels (both groups, P = 0.001). The rise in plasma syndecan-1 levels was more pronounced and occurred earlier during hemodialysis with higher plasma Na+ levels. Although we cannot prove that the rise in plasma syndecan-1 originates from the endothelial glycocalyx, our findings are compatible with Na+-driven endothelial glycocalyxderived syndecan-1 shedding.