While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography. However, there is still a debate with regard to the design of future lung cancer screening programs in Europe. This review summarizes the latest evidence of European lung cancer screening trials and gives an overview of the essence of recommendations from the different European medical societies and countries.