Background Anemia is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Multiple factors have been associated with anemia, but the role of hemodynamics is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels, hemodynamics and outcome in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular patients.
Methods and results A total of 2,009 patients who underwent right heart catheterization at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1989 and 2006 were identified and data were extracted from electronic databases. Anemia was defined by the WHO criteria (male, hemoglobin
Conclusion Anemia is common in cardiovascular patients and independently related to an elevated CVP and CI. Patients with anemia and an elevated CVP have the worst prognosis.