Angiogenic T (Tang) cells are mediators of vascular repair, and are characterized by surface expression of CXCR4. This receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Tang cell levels were investigated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with matched healthy controls and after treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin. People with T2DM were randomized to 5 mg/day Linagliptin (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 26 weeks. Tang cell frequency was identified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD3+CD31+CXCR4+) and levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (CD34+CD133+KDR+) were also assessed in whole blood. Circulating Tang cell levels were significantly lower in people with T2DM compared with the healthy control group. SDF-1α levels increased significantly in Linagliptin-treated people with T2DM compared to placebo, and a trend was observed in change of Tang cell levels, while EPC count did not change. In conclusion, circulating Tang cell levels were considerably lower in people with T2DM, while a trend was observed in recruitment of Tang cells after 26 weeks of treatment with Linagliptin. These data suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may potentially exert beneficial effects on bone marrow-driven vascular repair.