Study design Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Objectives To investigate prevalence, types, and severity of fecal incontinence (FI) and constipation in adults with spina bifida (SB), in relation to self-perception and help-seeking, and to compare findings to data from a general population reference group. Setting University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), the Netherlands. Methods The 294 adults with SB registered at UMCG in 2017 were invited to participate. The Groningen Defecation and Fecal Continence Questionnaire was used to assess functional outcomes for FI and constipation using Rome IV criteria. Vaizey (for FI) and Agachan (for constipation) scores were determined. Socio-demographic factors and self-perception of bowel-related problems were recorded through the questionnaire. Data were compared with an age and sex matched reference group. Results The completed questionnaires of 112 (38%) responding participants were analyzed. FI and constipation were more prevalent in the study group (35% and 45%, respectively) than in the reference group (8.9% and 22%, respectively). In general, in participants with SB aperta (SBA; n = 75), FI was more severe than in participants with SB occulta (SBO; n = 37). However, severity of FI was higher in SBO participants than in the SBA group after the age of 61. Bowel problems in adults with SB were associated with worse self-perception regarding health. Conclusions In adults with SB, anorectal dysfunction is often present and severe. Older persons with SBO experience more severe FI than in early age. Bowel problems should systematically and more adequately be addressed and controlled throughout adulthood in both the spina bifida groups.