Aromatic plants have a long and significant history in the traditional medicine of many countries. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in investigating the biological properties of aromatic plant extracts mainly due to their diversity, high availability, and low toxicity. Greece is abundant in aromatic plants, which can be attributed to the country's geographical position, the morphology of its landscape, and its numerous mountainous and insular areas. In the past 15 years, a number of aromatic plant extracts of Greek origin have been studied for their bioactivities, including their antiproliferative potential against different types of cancer. Although the pharmacological activities of specific species of Greek origin have been reviewed before, no gathered information on explicitly Greek species exist. In this review, we summarize existing data on the antiproliferative activity of extracts isolated from Greek aromatic plants and discuss their molecular mode(s) of action, where available, in order to identify promising extracts for future research and link chemical constituents responsible for their activity. We conclude that essentials oils are the most frequently studied plant extracts exhibiting high diversity in their composition and anticancer potential, but also other extracts appear to be worthy of further investigation for cancer chemoprevention.