Breastfeeding provides overall beneficial health to the mother-child dyad and is universally recognized as the preferred feeding mode for infants up to 6-months and beyond. Human milk provides immuno-protection and supplies nutrients and bioactive compounds whose concentrations vary with lactation stage. Environmental and dietary factors potentially lead to excessive chemical exposure in critical windows of development such as neonatal life, including lactation. This review discusses current knowledge on these environmental and dietary contaminants and summarizes the known effects of these chemicals in human milk, taking into account the protective presence of antioxidative molecules. Particular attention is given to short- and long-term effects of these contaminants, considering their role as endocrine disruptors and potential epigenetic modulators. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps and indicate potential future research directions.