Communities experience continual change. Much of that change is deliberate, the result of planned interventions (policies, plans, programs or projects) that have been initiated and/or implemented by government, at local, state and national levels, by the private sector, or by community groups. While planned interventions are undertaken to achieve desired objectives, there are always unplanned adverse impacts on the environment and on people. In order to consider the appropriateness of a specific intervention, such as whether regulatory approval should be given for a project, and/or what conditions should be imposed, assessment of the likely consequences, both positive and negative, is required. Projects have many obvious negative consequences on people who live near the site. They also have less obvious impacts that only emerge over time or with careful analysis. Policies, plans and programs also have adverse impacts. Consideration of impacts in the design phase can lead to a reduction in the adverse consequences and to an increase in the benefits of the planned intervention. Planning should be a dynamic process that uses adaptive management principles to iteratively consider the outcomes (positive and negative) of the intervention. Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is the process of ‘analysing, monitoring and managing the social consequences of development’ (IAIA 2003: 1). SIA, in its ideal form at least, is a powerful approach that can lead to many benefits. Communities benefit by having more say in decisions; they become revitalised through participation; social capital is built; harmful impacts are avoided; and benefits for communities are maximised.
|Titel||Controversies in Environmental Sociology|
|Uitgeverij||Cambridge University Press|
|ISBN van elektronische versie||9780511804434|
|ISBN van geprinte versie||9780521601023|
|Status||Published - 1-jan.-2004|