Background: Disease monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) will become more important with potential upcoming therapeutic interventions. Because serum creatinine level is considered of limited use and measurement of effective renal blood flow (ERBF) and total renal volume are time consuming and expensive, there is a need for other biomarkers. We aimed to investigate which urinary markers have increased levels in patients with ADPKD; whether these urinary markers are associated with measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR), ERBF, and total renal volume; and whether these associations are independent of albuminuria (urine albumin excretion [UAE]).
Study Design: Diagnostic test study.
Setting & Participants: 102 patients with ADPKD (Ravine criteria) and 102 age-and sex-matched healthy controls.
Index Test: 24-hour urinary excretion of glomerular (immunoglobulin G), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1], N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and beta(2)-microglobulin), and distal tubular (heart-type fatty acid binding protein [H-FABP]) damage markers and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1] and macrophage migration inhibitory factor).
Reference Test: Disease severity assessed using measures of kidney function (mGFR and ERBF, measured using clearance of iothalamate labeled with iodine 125 and hippuran labeled with iodine 131 during continuous infusion, respectively) and structure (total renal volume, measured using magnetic resonance imaging).
Other Measurements: 24-hour UAE.
Results: In 102 patients with ADPKD (aged 40 +/- 11 years; 58% men), levels of all measured urinary biomarkers were increased compared with healthy controls. Excretion of immunoglobulin G and albumin relatively were most increased. ERBF and mGFR values were associated with urinary excretion of beta(2)-microglobulin, NGAL, and H-FABP independent of UAE, whereas total renal volume was associated with KIM-1, NGAL, and MCP-1 independent of UAE.
Limitations: Cross-sectional, single center.
Conclusions: Levels of markers for multiple parts of the nephron are increased in patients with ADPKD. In addition to measurement of UAE, measurement of urinary beta(2)-microglobulin, KIM-1, H-FABP, MCP-1, and especially NGAL could be of value for determination of disease severity in patients with ADPKD. Am J Kidney Dis 56: 883-895. (C) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.