To study the prognostic effect of atrial reverse remodelling on outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).
Patients receiving a CRT device in the University Medical Centre Groningen were included. Atrial reverse remodelling was defined as a a parts per thousand yen10% reduction in left atrial volume index at 6-month follow-up. Success of CRT was defined as ventricular reverse remodelling with a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume of a parts per thousand yen15% at 6-month follow-up. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalizations. A total of 365 patients (mean age 65.1 +/- 11.0 years, 73% men) were included; among them, 221 (61%) were in sinus rhythm and had no prior atrial fibrillation (AF), and 144 patients (39%) had a history of AF. During a mean follow up of 2.0 +/- 1.0 years, 49 patients died. Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with no atrial and no ventricular reverse remodelling had the worst outcome (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-7.1, P = 0.006). Outcome in patients with only atrial reverse remodelling was comparable with outcome in patients with both atrial and ventricular reverse remodelling (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.7-5.6, P = 0.21).
Patients without atrial and ventricular reverse remodelling have the worst outcome. Patients with only atrial reverse remodelling have improved left ventricular diastolic filling during follow-up and demonstrate a comparable outcome with patients with both atrial and ventricular reverse remodelling. Assessment of atrial reverse remodelling may provide additional prognostic information in determining CRT outcome.