Stereotactic lesioning of the bilateral globus pallidus (GPi) was one of the first surgical treatments for medication-refractory dystonia but has largely been abandoned in clinical practice after the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, some patients with dystonia are not eligible for DBS. Therefore, we reviewed the efficacy, safety, and sustainability of bilateral pallidotomy by conducting a systematic review of individual patient data (IPD). Guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and IPD were followed. In May 2020, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies reporting on outcome of bilateral pallidotomy for dystonia. If available, IPD were collected. In this systematic review, 100 patients from 33 articles were evaluated. Adverse events were reported in 20 patients (20%), of which 8 were permanent (8%). Pre-and postoperative Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Movement Scale scores were available for 53 patients. A clinically relevant improvement (>20%) of this score was found in 42 of 53 patients (79%). Twenty-five patients with status dystonicus (SD) were described. In all but 2 the SD resolved after bilateral pallidotomy. Seven patients experienced a relapse of SD. Median-reported follow-up was 12 months (n = 83; range: 2-180 months). Based on the current literature, bilateral pallidotomy is an effective and relatively safe procedure for certain types of dystonia, particularly in medication-refractory SD. Although due to publication bias the underreporting of negative outcomes is very likely, bilateral pallidotomy is a reasonable alternative to DBS in selected dystonia patients. (c) 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.