Bile secretion and composition reflects the functional status of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Bile composition can have a role in the assessment of donor grafts before implantation in the recipient. In addition, changes in bile composition after liver transplantation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic tool to predict posttransplant complications, such as primary nonfunction, acute cellular rejection, or nonanastomotic biliary strictures. With the popularization of liver machine perfusion preservation in the clinical setting, there is a revisited interest in biliary biomarkers to assess graft viability before implantation. This review discusses current literature on biliary biomarkers that could predict or assess liver graft and bile duct viability. Bile composition offers an exciting and novel perspective in the search for reliable hepatocyte and cholangiocyte viability biomarkers.