Approximately 100 hematologists and pathologists from Europe, the United States, and Canada participated in the workshop Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas, held in Mandelieu, France,April 11-13, 2008, under the leadership of Anton Hagenbeek, Randy Gascoyne, and Gilles Salles. International experts in the field (discussed herein) shared their experiences in exploring the role of a variety of biologic markers related to different types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (follicular, diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, and Burkitt lymphomas) as well as Hodgkin lymphoma. The final goal of this clinical research is to develop new biologic prognostic indices for these major subtypes of lymphoma. In recent years, various prognostic indices, mainly based on clinical characteristics of the patient at diagnosis, have served to determine the prognostic profile and to develop prognostic factor-based treatment strategies. However, it is now time to reconsider this based on the wealth of new biologic information directly related to lymphoma cells and the surrounding cells. In this workshop, organized by the European School of Hematology and the European Hematology Association, the latest developments on molecular pathogenesis, new biomarkers, and their relation to prognosis were extensively discussed. Herein, the major conclusions presented in the different sessions are summarized.