We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and circumventricular organs express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward. MR expressed in abundance in this limbic-forebrain circuitry, is target of cortisol and corticosterone in modulation of appraisal processes, memory performance and selection of coping strategy. Complementary to this role of limbic MR is the action mediated by the lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which promote subsequently memory storage of the experience and facilitate behavioral adaptation. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that an imbalance between MR-and GR-mediated actions compromises resilience and adaptation to stress.