Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia associate with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events, yet the pathophysiological basis of this association is unclear. Disturbed mineral homeostasis and the associated hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia may result in the formation of circulating calciprotein particles (CPPs) that aggregate the excessive calcium and phosphate ions. If not counteracted, the initially formed harmless amorphous spherical complexes (primary CPPs) may mature into damaging crystalline complexes (secondary CPPs). Secondary CPPs are internalized by vascular cells, causing a massive influx of calcium ions into the cytosol, leading to a proinflammatory response, cellular dysfunction, and cell death. Although the pathophysiological effects induced by CPPs in vascular cells receive increasing attention, a complete picture of how these particles contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification remains elusive. We here discuss existing knowledge on CPP formation and function in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, techniques for investigating CPPs, and models currently applied to assess CPP-induced cardiovascular pathogenesis. Lastly, we evaluate the potential diagnostic value of serum CPP measurements and the therapeutic potential of anti-CPP therapies currently under development.
|Tijdschrift||Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||5|
|Status||Published - 5-mei-2021|