Cardiac T-2* mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

Pandji Triadyaksa*, Matthijs Oudkerk, Paul E. Sijens

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutput: Review articleAcademicpeer review

9 Citaten (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


Cardiac T-2* mapping is a noninvasive MRI method that is used to identify myocardial iron accumulation in several iron storage diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, sickle cell disease, and beta-thalassemia major. The method has improved over the years in terms of MR acquisition, focus on relative artifact-free myocardium regions, and T-2* quantification. Several improvement factors involved include blood pool signal suppression, the reproducibility of T-2* measurement as affected by scanner hardware, and acquisition software. Regarding the T-2* quantification, improvement factors include the applied curve-fitting method with or without truncation of the signals acquired at longer echo times and whether or not T-2* measurement focuses on multiple segmental regions or the midventricular septum only. Although already widely applied in clinical practice, data processing still differs between centers, contributing to measurement outcome variations. State of the art T-2* measurement involves pixelwise quantification providing better spatial iron loading information than region of interest-based quantification. Improvements have been proposed, such as on MR acquisition for free-breathing mapping, the generation of fast mapping, noise reduction, automatic myocardial contour delineation, and different T-2* quantification methods. This review deals with the pro and cons of different methods used to quantify T-2* and generate T-2* maps. The purpose is to recommend a combination of MR acquisition and T-2* mapping quantification techniques for reliable outcomes in measuring and follow-up of myocardial iron overload. The clinical application of cardiac T-2* mapping for iron overload's early detection, monitoring, and treatment is addressed. The prospects of T-2* mapping combined with different MR acquisition methods, such as cardiac T-1 mapping, are also described. Technical Efficacy Stage: 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 14-dec-2019

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