BACKGROUND: Currently, the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is the only available treatment for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), but there are tolerability issues due to aquaretic side-effects such as polyuria. A possible strategy to ameliorate these side-effects may be addition of a thiazide diuretic, this is an established treatment in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a condition where vasopressin V2 receptor function is absent.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 46-year-old male ADPKD-patient, who was prescribed tolvaptan, which caused polyuria of around 5 l per day. Hydrochlorothiazide was added to treat hypertension, which resulted in a marked decrease in urine production. While using tolvaptan, rate of eGFR decline was - 1.35 mL/min/1.73m2 per year, whereas after hydrochlorothiazide was initiated this was - 3.97 mL/minute/1.73m2 per year.
CONCLUSIONS: This case report indicates that while addition of hydrochlorothiazide may improve tolerability of vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists, co-prescription should only be used with great scrutiny as it may decrease tolvaptan effect on rate of ADPKD disease progression.