Catalytic Conversion of Nitriles by Metal Pincer Complexes

Beibei Guo, Edwin Otten, Johannes G. de Vries*

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

2 Citaten (Scopus)
121 Downloads (Pure)


The nitrile is an extremely useful functional group in organic synthesis: it can be transformed into amides, carboxylic acids, amines and imines; yet it is relatively stable and can be easily carried through several synthetic steps before being converted. The conversions of nitriles under mild conditions are thus very important transformations. Great progress has been made in the last decade in the use of metal pincer complexes as catalysts for quite a number of reactions of nitriles and nitrile-containing molecules. The selective hydrogenation of nitriles either to the amines or to the imines usually follows a Noyori-type outer-sphere mechanism. Coordination of aliphatic nitriles to the metal centre renders the α-proton rather acidic allowing deprotonation followed by carbon-carbon coupling reactions. The pyridine-based metal pincer complexes introduced by Milstein allow for novel mechanisms based on metal-ligand cooperativity in which the pyridine undergoes dearomatisation induced by deprotonation of one of the side arms. The nitrile can undergo a cycloaddition to the complex in its dearomatised form, creating a new bond between the nitrogen atom and the metal, whereas the nitrile carbon atom forms a C-C bond with the carbon atom of one of the pincer side-arms. The resulting metalimide undergoes nucleophilic addition more easily than the nitrile. It can also easily rearrange to the enamide, which can undergo C-C bond forming reactions. Also, oxo- and aza-Michael reactions are facilitated on the unsaturated nitriles, such as acrylonitriles or pentenitriles. Most reactions proceed under mild conditions in excellent yields.

Originele taal-2English
TitelTopics in Organometallic Chemistry
RedacteurenGerard van Koten, Karl Kirchner, Marc-Etienne Moret
UitgeverijSpringer Verlag
Aantal pagina's57
ISBN van elektronische versie978-3-030-68916-2
ISBN van geprinte versie978-3-030-68915-5, 978-3-030-68918-6
StatusPublished - 2021

Publicatie series

NaamTopics in Organometallic Chemistry
ISSN van geprinte versie1436-6002
ISSN van elektronische versie1616-8534

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