Charge properties and bacterial contact-killing of hyperbranched polyurea-polyethyleneimine coatings with various degrees of alkylation

Steven Roest, Henny C. van der Mei*, Ton J. A. Loontjens, Henk J. Busscher

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

14 Citaten (Scopus)


Coatings of immobilized-quaternary-ammonium-ions (QUAT) uniquely kill adhering bacteria upon contact. QUAT-coatings require a minimal cationic-charge surface density for effective contact-killing of adhering bacteria of around 10(14) cm(-2). Quaternization of nitrogen is generally achieved through alkylation. Here, we investigate the contribution of additional alkylation with methyl-iodide to the cationic-charge density of hexyl-bromide alkylated, hyperbranched polyurea-polyethyleneimine coatings measuring charge density with fluorescein staining. X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy was used to determine the at.% alkylated-nitrogen. Also streaming potentials, water contact-angles and bacterial contact-killing were measured. Cationic-charge density increased with methyl-iodide alkylation times up to 18 h, accompanied by an increase in the at.% alkylated-nitrogen. Zeta-potentials became more negative upon alkylation as a result of shielding of cationiccharges by hydrophobic alkyl-chains. Contact-killing of Gram-positive Staphylococci only occurred when the cationic-charge density exceeded 10(16) cm(-2) and was carried by alkylated-nitrogen (electron-binding energy 401.3 eV). Gram-negative Escherichia coli was not killed upon contact with the coatings. There with this study reveals that cationic-charge density is neither appropriate nor sufficient to determine the ability of QUAT-coatings to kill adhering bacteria. Alternatively, the at.% of alkylated-nitrogen at 401.3 eV is proposed, as it reflects both cationic-charge and its carrier. The at.% N-401.3 eV should be above 0.45 at.% for Gram-positive bacterial contact-killing. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)325-332
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftApplied Surface Science
StatusPublished - 30-nov-2015

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