Chk1 and 14-3-3 proteins inhibit atypical E2Fs to prevent a permanent cell cycle arrest

Ruixue Yuan, Harmjan R. Vos, Robert M. van Es, Jing Chen, Boudewijn M. T. Burgering, Bart Westendorp, Alain de Bruin

    OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

    20 Citaten (Scopus)
    234 Downloads (Pure)


    The atypical E2Fs, E2F7 and E2F8, act as potent transcriptional repressors of DNA replication genes providing them with the ability to induce a permanent S-phase arrest and suppress tumorigenesis. Surprisingly in human cancer, transcript levels of atypical E2Fs are frequently elevated in proliferating cancer cells, suggesting that the tumor suppressor functions of atypical E2Fs might be inhibited through unknown post-translational mechanisms. Here, we show that atypical E2Fs can be directly phosphorylated by checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) to prevent a permanent cell cycle arrest. We found that 14-3-3 protein isoforms interact with both E2Fs in a Chk1-dependent manner. Strikingly, Chk1 phosphorylation and 14-3-3-binding did not relocate or degrade atypical E2Fs, but instead, 14-3-3 is recruited to E2F7/8 target gene promoters to possibly interfere with transcription. We observed that high levels of 14-3-3 strongly correlate with upregulated transcription of atypical E2F target genes in human cancer. Thus, we reveal that Chk1 and 14-3-3 proteins cooperate to inactivate the transcriptional repressor functions of atypical E2Fs. This mechanism might be of particular importance to cancer cells, since they are exposed frequently to DNA-damaging therapeutic reagents.

    Originele taal-2English
    Aantal pagina's17
    TijdschriftEMBO Journal
    Nummer van het tijdschrift5
    StatusPublished - 1-mrt-2018

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