Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use may influence intestinal iron absorption. Low iron status and iron deficiency (ID) are frequent medical problems in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We hypothesized that chronic PPI use is associated with lower iron status and ID in RTR. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), and hemoglobin were measured in 646 stable outpatient RTR with a functioning allograft for ≥ 1 year from the "TransplantLines Food and Nutrition Biobank and Cohort Study" (NCT02811835). Median time since transplantation was 5.3 (1.8-12.0) years, mean age was 53 ± 13 years, and 56.2% used PPI. In multivariable linear regression analyses, PPI use was inversely associated with serum iron (β = -1.61, p = 0.001), natural log transformed serum ferritin (β = -0.31, p < 0.001), TSAT (β = -2.85, p = 0.001), and hemoglobin levels (β = -0.35, p = 0.007), independent of potential confounders. Moreover, PPI use was independently associated with increased risk of ID (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.57; 95% Confidence Interval (CI )1.07-2.31, p = 0.02). Additionally, the odds ratio in RTR taking a high PPI dose as compared to RTR taking no PPIs (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.46-3.62, p < 0.001) was higher than in RTR taking a low PPI dose (OR:1.78; 95% CI 1.21-2.62, p= 0.004). We demonstrated that PPI use is associated with lower iron status and ID, suggesting impaired intestinal absorption of iron. Moreover, we found a stronger association with ID in RTR taking high PPI dosages. Use of PPIs should, therefore, be considered as a modifiable cause of ID in RTR.