BACKGROUND: Feedback is essential for workplace learning. Most papers in this field concern individual feedback. In collectivistic cultures, however, group feedback is common educational practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived learning value and characteristics of individual and group feedback in a collectivistic culture.
METHODS: During two weeks, on a daily basis, clerkship students (n = 215) from 12 clinical departments at Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, recorded individual and group feedback moments by using a structured form: the providers, focus and perceived learning value of feedback. Data were analysed with logistic regression and multilevel techniques.
RESULTS: Students reported 2687 group and 1535 individual feedback moments. Group feedback more often focused on history taking, clinical judgment, patient management, patient counselling, and professional behaviour (OR ranging from 1.232, p < .01, to 2.152, p < .001), but less often on physical examination (OR = .836, p < .01). Group feedback less often aimed at correcting performance deficiencies (OR = .523, p < .001) and more often at comparing performance to the standard (OR = 2.447, p < .001) and planning action to improve performance (OR = 1.759, p < .001). Group feedback was perceived as more valuable than individual feedback (M = 4.08 and 3.96, respectively, β group = .065, SE = .026, p < .01).
CONCLUSION: In collectivistic cultures, group feedback may add to the array of educational measures that optimize student learning. Congruence between culture and type of feedback may be important for the effectiveness of feedback.