Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-fed infants, a BM group in which breast milk was the only source of milk and a BCM group given cow's milk in addition to breast milk; and 2) to identify potential mediators of a feeding pattern effect. For this purpose, infants were classified by feeding group on the basis of a mother's recall. Respiration calorimetry was used to measure MOEE n 62 infants (n = 35 BM, n = 27 BCM) aged 8.7 mo in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Breast-milk intake was measured using deuterium oxide, complementary food intake by 1-d food weighing, total energy expenditure and total body water using doubly labeled water; anthropometric indices were calculated. MOEE was 1672 +/- 175 kJ/d in BM compared with 1858 210 kJ/d in BCM infants (P <0.001). Mass-specific MOEE was 201 +/- 24.6 and 216 +/- 31.9 U/(kg center dot d) in BM and BCM infants, respectively (P = 0.041). MOEE (kJ/d) was mediated by protein intake and fat-free mass (R-2 = 41.4%). We conclude that complementary feeding with cow's milk alters the sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants. These findings deserve attention in relation to "metabolic programming" and the development of obesity later in life.
|Tijdschrift||Journal of Nutrition|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||8|
|Status||Published - aug-2005|
|Evenement||12th International Conference of the International-Society-for-Research-in-Human-Milk-and-Lactation - |
Duur: 10-sep-2004 → 14-sep-2004